Impairment of the Schistosoma mansoni-specific immune responses elicited by treatment with praziquantel in Ugandans with HIV-1 co-infection
We show that Ugandan adults coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are able to mount S. mansoni-specific immune responses but that few such responses increase after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Levels of soluble worm antigen (SWA)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5 increased significantly in HIV-negative participants after treatment with PZQ, whereas most soluble egg antigen-specific antibody responses and levels of interferon- gamma were unaltered. Only levels of SWA-specific IL-5 increased in HIV-1-coinfected participants after treatment. These deficiencies in immune responses may account for the previously reported increased susceptibility to infection and reinfection with S. mansoni in individuals coinfected with HIV-1.