Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and interferon gamma responses in Ugandans with HIV-1 acute/early infections
Control of HIV replication through CD4+ and CD8+ T cells might be possible, but the functional and phenotypic characteristics of such cells are not defined. Among cytokines produced by T cells, CCR5 ligands, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), compete for the CCR5 coreceptor with HIV, promoting CCR5 internalization and decreasing its availability for virus binding. Interferon (IFN)-γ also has some antiviral activity and has been used as a read-out for T cell immunogenicity. We used cultured ELISpot assays to compare the relative contribution of MIP-1β and IFN-γ to HIV-specific responses. The magnitude of responses was 1.36 times higher for MIP-1β compared to IFN-γ. The breadth of the MIP-1β response (45.41%) was significantly higher than IFN-γ (36.88%), with considerable overlap between the peptide pools that stimulated both MIP-1β and IFN-γ production. Subtype A and D cross-reactive responses were observed both at stimulation and test level, but MIP-1β and IFN-γ responses displayed different effect patterns. We conclude that the MIP-1β ELISpot would be a useful complement to the evaluation of the immunogenicity of HIV vaccines and the activity of adjuvants.