Viral-associated malignancies in Africa: are viruses 'infectious traces' or 'dominant drivers'?
Since the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) the first human virus associated with cancer in 1964, the number of human malignancies associated with viruses has grown. A review of cancer incidence reveals substantial variation in the incidence of such cancers around the world. In some parts of Africa, the majority of cancers are caused by infectious agents. However, there remain huge challenges in measuring the burden of cancer, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this limitation, it is clear that viral-associated malignancies are key drivers of cancer incidence rates in Africa. Prevention is available through vaccination for some but development of vaccines for others remains an important the goal.